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Restorative justice provides an alternative framework to the adversarial-retributive justice model for dealing with offenders. In restorative justice models, victim needs are central, offenders are held accountable, and the government is a secondary player in the process of restoring victims, offenders, and communities to a state of wholeness. Emerging in its contemporary form in the 1970s, restorative justice gained widespread recognition in the 1980s, and by the 1990s became part of mainstream correctional policy and practice in the United States and countries around the world. Today, restorative justice has converged with the notion of community justice to become an alternative way of thinking about and responding to crime.
Proponents of restorative justice argue that community members should play a crucial role in dealing with the aftermath of crime, enhancing public safety, and furthering the goals of social and criminal justice. Strategies that have become central restorative justice paradigms include victim–offender mediation and reconciliation, family group conferencing, peacemaking and sentencing circles, and surrogate encounter programs. A challenge for the future is to determine how restorative programs, policies, and practices can meaningfully function within the retributive framework of U.S. corrections and better meet the needs of victims, offenders, and citizens.
Citation in APA 7th Edition
Helfgott, J. B. (2005). Restorative Justice. In M. Bosworth (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Prisons and Correctional Facilities (Vol. 2, pp. 845-851). SAGE Reference.
A liberation movement is a type of social movement that seeks territorial independence or enhanced political or cultural autonomy (or rights of various types) within an existing nation-state for a particular national, ethnic, or racial group. The term has also been extended to or adopted by other types of groups (e.g., women and gays and lesbians) that seek to free themselves from various forms of domination and discrimination. National liberation movements have been an especially important force in the modern world, and scholars have been interested in explaining their origins, strategies, and impacts. The division of the globe into nation-states, many of the wars among these states, and the hundreds of historical and contemporary conflicts among states and ethnic groups—in short, fundamental aspects of the modern world—cannot be understood without also understanding liberation movements.
Citation in APA 7th Edition
Liberation Movements. (2008). In W. A. Darity, Jr. (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (2nd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 431-434). Macmillan Reference USA.