Restorative justice provides an alternative framework to the adversarial-retributive justice model for dealing with offenders. In restorative justice models, victim needs are central, offenders are held accountable, and the government is a secondary player in the process of restoring victims, offenders, and communities to a state of wholeness. Emerging in its contemporary form in the 1970s, restorative justice gained widespread recognition in the 1980s, and by the 1990s became part of mainstream correctional policy and practice in the United States and countries around the world. Today, restorative justice has converged with the notion of community justice to become an alternative way of thinking about and responding to crime.
Proponents of restorative justice argue that community members should play a crucial role in dealing with the aftermath of crime, enhancing public safety, and furthering the goals of social and criminal justice. Strategies that have become central restorative justice paradigms include victim–offender mediation and reconciliation, family group conferencing, peacemaking and sentencing circles, and surrogate encounter programs. A challenge for the future is to determine how restorative programs, policies, and practices can meaningfully function within the retributive framework of U.S. corrections and better meet the needs of victims, offenders, and citizens.
A liberation movement is a type of social movement that seeks territorial independence or enhanced political or cultural autonomy (or rights of various types) within an existing nation-state for a particular national, ethnic, or racial group. The term has also been extended to or adopted by other types of groups (e.g., women and gays and lesbians) that seek to free themselves from various forms of domination and discrimination. National liberation movements have been an especially important force in the modern world, and scholars have been interested in explaining their origins, strategies, and impacts. The division of the globe into nation-states, many of the wars among these states, and the hundreds of historical and contemporary conflicts among states and ethnic groups—in short, fundamental aspects of the modern world—cannot be understood without also understanding liberation movements. Citation in APA 7th Edition Liberation Movements. (2008). In W. A. Darity, Jr. (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (2nd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 431-434). Macmillan Reference USA.
This book explores the theory and practice of design justice, demonstrates how universalist design principles and practices erase certain groups of people--specifically, those who are intersectionally disadvantaged or multiply burdened under the matrix of domination (white supremacist heteropatriarchy, ableism, capitalism, and settler colonialism)--and invites readers to "build a better world, a world where many worlds fit; linked worlds of collective liberation and ecological sustainability." Along the way, the book documents a multitude of real-world community-led design practices, each grounded in a particular social movement. Design Justice goes beyond recent calls for design for good, user-centered design, and employment diversity in the technology and design professions; it connects design to larger struggles for collective liberation and ecological survival.
Race Capitalism Justice urges us to embrace a vision of justice attentive to the history of slavery not through the lens of human rights, but instead through an honest accounting of how slavery was the foundation of capitalism, a legacy that continues to afflict people of color and the poor. Inspired by Cedric J. Robinson's work on racial capitalism, as well as Black Lives Matter and its forebears including the black radical tradition, the Black Panthers, South African anti-apartheid struggles, and organized labor, contributors to this volume offer a critical handbook to racial justice in the age of Trump.
The status of boundaries and borders, questions of global poverty and inequality, criteria for the legitimate uses of force, the value of international law, human rights, nationality, sovereignty, migration, territory, and citizenship: debates over these critical issues are central to contemporary understandings of world politics. Bringing together an interdisciplinary range of contributors, including historians, political theorists, lawyers, and international relations scholars, this is the first volume of its kind to explore the racial and imperial dimensions of normative debates over global justice.
This Handbook presents current and future studies on the changing dynamics of the role of immigrants and the impact of immigration, across the United States and industrialized and developing nations. It covers the changing dynamics of race, ethnicity, and immigration, and discusses how it all contributes to variations in crime, policing, and the overall justice system. Through acknowledging that some groups, especially people of color, are disproportionately influenced more than others in the case of criminal justice reactions, the "War on Drugs", and hate crimes; this Handbook introduces the importance of studying race and crime so as to better understand it. It does so by recommending that researchers concentrate on ethnic diversity in a national and international context in order to broaden their demographic and expand their understanding of how to attain global change.
In Black Liberation, George Fredrickson offers a fascinating account of how blacks in the United States and South Africa came to grips with the challenge of white supremacy. He reveals a rich history--not merely of parallel developments, but of an intricate, transatlantic web of influences and cross-fertilization.
This interdisciplinary anthology sheds light on the frameworks and lived experiences of Black women educators. Contributors for this anthology submitted works from an array of academic disciplines and learning environments, inviting readers to bear witness to black women faculty's classroom experiences, as well as their pedagogical approaches both inside and outside of the higher education classroom that have fostered transformative teaching-learning environments. Through this multidimensional lens, the editors and contributors view instruction and learning as a political endeavor aimed at changing the way we think about teaching, learning. and praxis.
In this intellectual history, Minkah Makalani reveals how early-twentieth-century black radicals organized an international movement centered on ending racial oppression, colonialism, class exploitation, and global white supremacy. Focused primarily on two organizations, the Harlem-based African Blood Brotherhood, whose members became the first black Communists in the United States, and the International African Service Bureau, the major black anticolonial group in 1930s London, In the Cause of Freedom examines the ideas, initiatives, and networks of interwar black radicals, as well as how they communicated across continents.
The authors bring you in this edited volume a collection of essays that address the relationship between racial violence, media, the criminal justice system, and education. This book is unique in that it brings together the perspectives of university professors, artists, poets, community activists, classroom teachers, and legal experts. With the Trayvon Martin murder and legal proceedings at the center of reflection and analysis, authors poignantly provide insight into how racial violence is institutionalized and consumed by the mass public. Authors borrow from educational theory, history, gender studies, sociology, cultural studies, the arts, legal scholarship, and personal reflection to begin the dialogue on how to move toward education for racial and social justice.
In these newly collected essays, interviews, and speeches, world-renowned activist and scholar Angela Y. Davis illuminates the connections between struggles against state violence and oppression throughout history and around the world. Reflecting on the importance of black feminism, intersectionality, and prison abolitionism for today's struggles, Davis discusses the legacies of previous liberation struggles, from the Black Freedom Movement to the South African anti-Apartheid movement. She highlights connections and analyzes today's struggles against state terror, from Ferguson to Palestine. Facing a world of outrageous injustice, Davis challenges us to imagine and build the movement for human liberation. And in doing so, she reminds us that "Freedom is a constant struggle."
The eruption of mass protests in the wake of the police murders of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri and Eric Garner in New York City have challenged the impunity with which officers of the law carry out violence against Black people and punctured the illusion of a postracial America. The Black Lives Matter movement has awakened a new generation of activists. In this stirring and insightful analysis, activist and scholar Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor surveys the historical and contemporary ravages of racism and persistence of structural inequality such as mass incarceration and Black unemployment. In this context, she argues that this new struggle against police violence holds the potential to reignite a broader push for Black liberation.
This magisterial follow-up to The New Abolition, a Grawemeyer Award winner, tells the crucial second chapter in the black social gospel's history. The civil rights movement was one of the most searing developments in modern American history. It abounded with noble visions, resounded with magnificent rhetoric, and ended in nightmarish despair. It won a few legislative victories and had a profound impact on U.S. society, but failed to break white supremacy. The symbol of the movement, Martin Luther King Jr., soared so high that he tends to overwhelm anything associated with him. Yet the tradition that best describes him and other leaders of the civil rights movement has been strangely overlooked. In his latest book, Gary Dorrien continues to unearth the heyday and legacy of the black social gospel, a tradition with a shimmering history, a martyred central figure, and enduring relevance today.